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Oil refinery Wikipedia

An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils. Petrochemicals feed stock like ethylene and propylene can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil without the need

List of Oil Refineries · History · Operation · Major products · Flow diagram of typical refinery

Visbreaker Wikipedia

Process options. Visbreaker tar can be further refined by feeding it to a vacuum fractionator. Here additional heavy gas oil may be recovered and routed either to catalytic cracking, hydrocracking or thermal cracking units on the refinery. The vacuum-flashed tar

Refining Crude Oil Energy Explained, Your Guide To

May 23, 2019· How crude oil is refined into petroleum products. refineries change crude oil into petroleum products for use as fuels for transportation, heating, paving roads, and generating electricity and as feedstocks for making chemicals.. Refining breaks crude oil down into its various components, which are then selectively reconfigured into new products.

Challenges of heavy crude processing digitalrefining

This article reviews very heavy crude oil supplies, upgrading options and the key role of some refinery units in upgrading the heavy oil. Heavy crude oil: sources and recovery A basic fact: unconventional oil production is much more expensive than conventional oil production.

The Refinery Process AFPM

The Facts About Crude Oil. The refining process begins with crude oil. Crude oil is unrefined liquid petroleum, which ranges in color from yellow to black, and may have a paraffin, asphalt or mixed base. Crude oil is composed of thous of different chemical compounds called hydrocarbons, all with different boiling points.

New trends in oil refinery water reclamation WaterWorld

The average refinery requires 2.5 s of water for every of crude oil processed. A typical large refinery will process 8-10 MGD of centrally collected “dirty” process water. Usually this doesn't include stormwater and sanitary sewer, which further add to the treatment burden.

The case for refining bitumen in Canada iPolitics

If you were the head of Enbridge, TransCanada or Kinder Morgan and you saw environmentalists and First Nations making common cause against the pipelines you need to transport your bitumen crude to tidewater, and heard the president of the United States calling your oil the “dirtiest in the world," wouldn’t you examine every option to overcome that opposition?

Tar Sands RefineryReport.org Oil Change International

Facts about these impacts are available at Oil Sands Reality Check. Refining Tar Sands. This site focuses on the refineries that process tar s crude in the USA and Canada. The refining of tar s crude is a particularly intensive and polluting process and has increased dramatically in recent years.

Oil Tankers May Carry Harmful Tar Sands Through Bay Area

Dec 23, 2018· Oil tankers may one day be carrying tar s, the heaviest and dirtiest oil on the planet, through Bay Area waters. A spill could send the tar s sinking to the bottom of the bay, creating

Air District OKs Expansion of Oil Processing at Phillips

Aug 17, 2018· The air agency's approval comes as the oil company also pushes to more than double the number of oil tankers permitted to unload crude oil at its marine terminal. Currently, 59 ships a year are allowed to make crude and gas deliveries at the terminal. Phillips 66

Instrumentation: The Process of Refining Crude Oil

The Process of Refining Crude Oil In the early days of the oil industry, the methods for refining oil were very different than the methods we use today. People like Samuel M. Kier used horizontal cylindrical stills that only held 5 to 6 barrels of oil at a time.

Crude Oil How Oil Refining Works HowStuffWorks

Crude oil is a fossil fuel, meaning that it was made natural­ly from decaying plants and s living in ancient seas millions of years ago -- most places you can find crude oil were once sea beds. Crude oils vary in color, from clear to tar-black, and in viscosity, from water to almost solid.

From Crude Oil to Chemicals: Back to the Fundamentals

Oct 31, 2018· Companies have been manufacturing petrochemicals from crude oil for decades, so what has been happening? The term thermal crude to chemicals could perhaps imply that crude oil is used directly as a feedstock in steam crackers to yield olefins and aromatics eliminating the need for refining. But has this not been tried before? The answer is it has!

Oil Refinery Breakdowns Spike Gasoline Prices forbes

Apr 10, 2019· Oil Refinery Breakdowns Spike Gasoline Prices. It’s why Canada needed the Keystone XL Pipeline to get their tar s crude oil to our refineries along the Gulf Coast.

DEIS Appendix A Refining

refining crude oil, as well as potential impacts to the surrounding community. Crude Beginnings Crude oil often is delivered to the refinery by barge and, as a result, refineries are concentrated in coastal states. It also can be delivered by pipeline, and so refiner-ies are located near current or historical sources of crude oil and near

REFINERY REPORT The Price of Oil Oil Change

The Refinery Report project will develop and publish data on North America’s refineries beginning with the amount of crude oil refined from the world’s dirtiest and most destructive source of oil: the Canadian tar s.1 The website currently shows data estimating the quantity of tar s crude

What Is Petcoke? ThoughtCo

coke, or petcoke, is a byproduct from the refining of crude oil. It consists mostly of carbon, with variable amounts of sulfurs and heavy metals. It has many industrial uses, including the production of batteries, steel, and aluminum.

Chapter 1. Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen SciTech Connect

Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen 7 reflected in the differences observed in various recovery processes as well as in the price variations between conventional crude oil types, the heavy oils, and tar bitumen (Tables 1.1 and 1.2) (Speight, 2011, 2013a, b). Typically, crude oil quality has an effect on the recovery process insofar as

Oil Sands 101: Process Overview Oil Sands Magazine

Oil s are a loose deposit which contain a very viscous form of petroleum known as bitumen.Oil s are actually found all over the world and are sometimes referred to as tar s or bituminous s.. Alberta's oil s contain on average about 10% bitumen, 5% water and 85% solids.Most of the solids are coarse silica .

ROSE digitalrefining

• Upgrading of existing refineries for greater conversion of crude oil to refined products • Refinery expansion to process more crude • Refinery modification to process lower-quality, lower-cost crude • Construction of a new roots refinery ROSE® units can upgrade very heavy crudes, process resid from tar bitumen, and

Light on the Top, Heavy on the Bottom: A Crude Oil

So, how does a refinery turn a barrel of crude into the useful products we rely on? It generally takes three basic steps. 1. Separation through distillation. Modern distillation involves pumping oil through pipes in hot furnaces and separating light hydrocarbon molecules from heavy ones.

Refining Overview Inside Mines

Refining Overview Refining 11% $0.28 $11.97 Crude Oil 57% $1.48 $62.00 Refinery Costs / Wholesale Price $1.76 $73.97 1939 Visbreaking Reduce viscosity Increased distillate, tar 1940 Alkylation Increase gasoline octane & yield High‐octane aviation gasoline

Canadian tar s crude heads to Bay Area refineries

May 31, 2013· Canadian tar s crude heads to Bay Area refineries toward acquiring Canadian tar s crude by rail. The refinery wants to bring in 70,000 barrels a day of North American crude

The process of crude oil refining EME 801: Energy

PRESENTER: For crude oil to be used effectively by modern industry, it has to be separated into its component parts and have impurities like sulfur removed. The most common method of refining crude is the process of fractional distillation. This involves heating crude oil to about 350 degrees Celsius, to turn it into a mixture of gases.

Light on the Top, Heavy on the Bottom: A Crude Oil

So, how does a refinery turn a barrel of crude into the useful products we rely on? It generally takes three basic steps. 1. Separation through distillation. Modern distillation involves pumping oil through pipes in hot furnaces and separating light hydrocarbon molecules from heavy ones.

Refining Overview Inside Mines

Refining Overview Refining 11% $0.28 $11.97 Crude Oil 57% $1.48 $62.00 Refinery Costs / Wholesale Price $1.76 $73.97 1939 Visbreaking Reduce viscosity Increased distillate, tar 1940 Alkylation Increase gasoline octane & yield High‐octane aviation gasoline

The Process of Refining Crude Oil Instrumentation

The Process of Refining Crude Oil Bitumen, commonly known as tar, is a thick, black, sticky material. Refined bitumen is the bottom fraction obtained by the fractional distillation of crude oil. This means that the boiling point of bitumen is very high, so it does not rise in the distillation chamber. The boiling point of bitumen is 977

The process of crude oil refining EME 801: Energy

PRESENTER: For crude oil to be used effectively by modern industry, it has to be separated into its component parts and have impurities like sulfur removed. The most common method of refining crude is the process of fractional distillation. This involves heating crude oil to about 350 degrees Celsius, to turn it into a mixture of gases.

Oil: Crude and Products Energy Explained, Your

May 23, 2019· Crude oil is a fossil fuel, and it exists in liquid form in underground pools or reservoirs, in tiny spaces within sedimentary rocks, and near the surface in tar (or oil) s. products are fuels made from crude oil and other hydrocarbons contained in natural gas. products can also be made from coal, natural gas, and biomass.

Hedging Against Rising Crude Oil Prices using Crude Oil

Scenario #1: Crude Oil Spot Price by 10% to USD 48.62/barrel on Delivery Date. With the increase in crude oil price to USD 48.62/barrel, the oil refinery will now have to pay USD 4,862,000 for the 100,000 barrels of crude oil. However, the increased purchase price will

How to Trade Oil: Crude Oil Trading Strategies & Tips

Crude oil is the world economy’s primary energy source, making it a very popular commodity to trade. A naturally occurring fossil fuel, it can be refined into various products like gasoline

How to Make Petrol or Gas from Crude Oil. YouTube

Dec 14, 2010· The video shows how crude oil is mined and how petrol, gas, jet fuel, etc., are 'refined' from it. The scenes take place in Texas, USA.

Which Is Safer For Transporting Crude Oil: Rail, Truck

Oct 11, 2018· News of increased crude oil transportation by rail from Canada has raised this question again. The short answer is: truck worse than train worse than pipeline worse than boat. But it

Canadian tar s crude heads to Bay Area refineries

May 31, 2013· Canadian tar s crude heads to Bay Area refineries toward acquiring Canadian tar s crude by rail. The refinery wants to bring in 70,000 barrels a day of North American crude

From Crude Oil How Oil Refining Works HowStuffWorks

The problem with crude oil is that it contains hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons all mixed together. You have to separate the different types of hydrocarbons to have anything useful. Fortunately there is an easy way to separate things, and this is what oil refining is all about.

Oil & Gas: Crude Oil Global Oil and Gas Trading

Heavy crude oil is also known as “tar s” because of its high bitumen content. With simple distillation, dense, heavier crude oil produces a greater share of lower-valued products. Heavy crude requires extra refining to produce more valuable and in-demand products. What Determines Crude Oil’s Relative Economic Value?

Abstract Process Economics Program Report 266 HEAVY

Abstract Process Economics Program Report 266 HEAVY OIL FROM TAR SANDS (December 2008) This report presents preliminary process designs and the corresponding production economics (capex + opex) for upgrading tar s to synthetic crude oil that

Valero Rail Project Fuels Tar Sands Speculation in Bay

Aug 09, 2013· Valero, the nation’s largest oil refiner, wants to start using trains to bring crude oil to its Bay Area refinery.But the project is raising concerns about congestion, safety and air pollution in the East Bay city of Benicia and the connection it may have to Canada’s controversial tar s.

From Crude Oil How Oil Refining Works HowStuffWorks

The problem with crude oil is that it contains hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons all mixed together. You have to separate the different types of hydrocarbons to have anything useful. Fortunately there is an easy way to separate things, and this is what oil refining is all about.

Oil & Gas: Crude Oil Global Oil and Gas Trading

Heavy crude oil is also known as “tar s” because of its high bitumen content. With simple distillation, dense, heavier crude oil produces a greater share of lower-valued products. Heavy crude requires extra refining to produce more valuable and in-demand products. What Determines Crude Oil’s Relative Economic Value?

Abstract Process Economics Program Report 266 HEAVY

Abstract Process Economics Program Report 266 HEAVY OIL FROM TAR SANDS (December 2008) This report presents preliminary process designs and the corresponding production economics (capex + opex) for upgrading tar s to synthetic crude oil that

Valero Rail Project Fuels Tar Sands Speculation in Bay

Aug 09, 2013· Valero, the nation’s largest oil refiner, wants to start using trains to bring crude oil to its Bay Area refinery.But the project is raising concerns about congestion, safety and air pollution in the East Bay city of Benicia and the connection it may have to Canada’s controversial tar s.

Conventional Crude Oil an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Conventional Crude Oil. Conventional crude oil is a brownish green to black liquid with a specific gravity in a range from about 0.810 to 0.985 and having a boiling range from about 20°C (68°F) to above 350°C (660°F), above which active decomposition ensues when distillation is attempted.

Coke: the coal hiding in the tar SandS

of tar s fail to account for a byproduct of the process that is a major source of climate change causing carbon emissions: petroleum coke known as petcoke. Petcoke is the coal hiding in orth n america’s tar s oil boom. Petcoke is like coal, but dirtier. Petcoke looks and acts like coal, but it

From Crude Oil How Oil Refining Works

To understand the diversity contained in crude oil, and to understand why refining crude oil is so important in our society, look through the following list of products that come from crude oil: gas used for heating, cooking, making s. small alkanes (1 to 4 carbon atoms) commonly known by the names methane, ethane, propane

From Diluted Bitumen to Synthetic Crude: Upgrading

In contrast, upgraded bitumen (synthetic crude oil) is light, sweet and virtually impurity-free. This greatly increases the marketability of the crude, making is saleable to almost any type of refinery. Synthetic crude therefore sells at a premium to diluted bitumen.

Protect the Bay Coalition

“Tar s crude oil harms our air, water, climate, and indigenous and frontline communities. We respectfully urge you to reject Phillips 66’s refinery expansion that would double the number of tankers delivering to their refinery and allow them to process tar s.

Air District Approves Tesoro Plan for West Coast’s Largest

May 15, 2017· evaluating their options for appealing AQMD’s approval of the environmental impact report. “There is ample evidence that the refinery integration project will enable Tesoro to process unprecedented, significant quantities of fracked Bakken crude and also Canadian tar s crude,” said Gladys Limón, staff attorney with CBE.

Coking FSC 432: Refining

Coking is the most severe thermal process used in the refinery to treat the very bottom-of-the-barrel of crude oil, i.e., vacuum residue. Because of the high severity of thermal cracking during coking, the residue feed is completely converted to gas, light and medium distillates, and coke with no production of residual oil.

Saratovsky Refinery

The capacity of the Saratovsky Refinery is 7.0 million tons of oil per year. The Saratovsky Refinery processes Urals crude oil and oil from the Saratovskoye field coming through the pipeline, as well as oil from the Sorochinskoye, Orenburgskoye and Zaykinskoye fields, supplied by rail. All the fuels produced by the plant correspond to

New Frontiers: the Great Lakes option for getting Canadian

The dock may support ships with a capacity of up to 120,000 barrels — the size of a large barge or small tanker — and would be built near the company’s 45,000 b/d refinery in Superior. The crude oil would first be sent by a common pipeline to the refinery.

Pipeline Through Benin An Attractive Crude Export Option

The implementation of a commercially viable export option would dish barriers to increased crude oil production, enabling Niger’s upstream sector to grow. Niger and Benin have signed a bilateral agreement on the construction of a pipeline which would enable landlocked Niger to export crude oil through the port of its neighbour.